INDIAN POLITY BY M LAXMIKANT is best book to prepare for Politics when it comes to IAS,SSC-CGL,CDS,BANK-PO,etc or any other competitive examination. This Book is written in such a matter that it covers only important and related parts of the Syllabus.



This book Indian Polity By M Laxmikant is a must book for every Aspirant, Please buy hard copy of this book.

This is latest Edition of the book


Part I: Constituional Framework
1.Historical Background
2.Making of the constitution
3.Salient features of the Indian Constitution
4.Preamble to the Constitution
5.Union and its territory
7.Fundamental rights
8.Directive principles of state policy
9.Fundamental duties
10.Amendment of the constitution
11.Basic structure of the constitution.

Part II: System of Government
12.Parliamentary system
13.Federal System
14.Centre-state relations
15.Inter-state relations.
16.Emergency provisions

Part III:Central government
19.Prime Minister
20.Central Council of Ministers
21.Cabinet committees
23.Parliamentary committees
24.Parliamentary forums
25.Supreme Court

Part IV:State Government
27.Chief Minister
28.State Council of Ministers
29.State legislature
30.High court
31.Subordinate Courts
32.Special status of Jammu and Kashmir
33.Special provision for some states

Part V:Local Government
34.Panchayati raj

Part VI:Union territories and special areas
36.Union territories
37.Scheduled and tribal areas

Part VII: Constitutional Bodies
38.Election commission
39.Union Public service commission
40.State Public service Commission
41.Finance Commission
42.National Commission for SC’s
43. National Commission for ST’s
44.Special officer for Linguistic minorities
45.Comptroller and auditor general of India
46.Attorney General of India.
47.Advocate General of India.

Part VIII:Non-Constitutional Bodies
48.Planing Commission
49.National Development Council
50.National Human Rights Commission
51.State Human Rights Commission
52.Central Information Commission
53.State Information Commission
54.Central vigilance Commission
55.Central Bureau of Investigation
56.Lokpal and Lokayuktas

Part IX:Other Constitutional Dimensions
57.Co-operative societies
58.Official Language
59.Public services
61.Rights and Liabilities of the Government.
62.Authoritative text of the Constitution in Hindi Language.
63.Special Provision relating to certain classes.
Part X:Political Dynamics
64.Political Parties
66.Electoral Reforms
67.Anti-Defection Law
68.Pressure groups
69.National Integration
70.Foreign Policy

Part XI:Working of the Constitution
71.National Commission to review the working of the constitution.

Note : We at Indiaepaper are not the original publisher of this book, it is taken from a random website.

SSC CGL Revised pattern Updated (2016)


 The candidates may please refer to the Para No. 9, 9.1 and 9.2 (related to Scheme of Examination) of the Notice of Combined Graduate Level Examination, 2016 published on 13.02.2016 on Commission’s website as well as Employment News/Rozgar Samachar. In accordance with Para No. 9.1 of the Notice, the Commission had reserved the right to make changes in the scheme of examination such as conduct of Tier-I and Tier-II examination in computer based examination mode, treating Tier-I examination as only qualifying etc. Under the provisions of the Notice as referred above, the Commission has decided to reduce the Number of Questions from 200 to 100 in Tier-I of the above Examination which would continue to carry 200 marks. The duration of the Tier-I examination would be for a period of 75 minutes. It has also been decided to conduct the Tier-I and Tier-II in computer based examination mode in place of OMR based examination mode. Tier-I is scheduled to be held from 27th August, 2016.

Accordingly, the revised scheme of examination is detailed below:-

Tier 1 : For Tier 1 paper is changed to computer based, total 75 Minutes will be available for Four parts -
General Intelligence & Reasoning =  25 Questions = Maximum Marks 50
General Awareness 25 Questions = 25 Questions = Maximum Marks 50
Quantitative Aptitude 25 Questions  =  25 Questions = Maximum Marks 50
English Comprehension 25 Questions =  25 Questions = Maximum Marks 50

Note : For VH and candidates suffering from Cerebral Palsy: 100 Minutes will be available

Tier 2 :   Tier 2 is also computer based and Further information will be updated on offical website here

Note : * There will be negative marking of 0.50 for each wrong answer in Tier-I. In respect of TierII, the negative marking system will remain unchanged.

In addition to above, the Commission has also decided to introduce a Descriptive Paper of English/Hindi as Tier-III. The Question Paper will be bilingual. The candidates will have the option to choose any one medium. The details may be read as under:

Tier 3 : This examination will be of Pen and paper Mode. A Descriptive Paper in English/Hindi (writing of Essay/Precis/Letter /Application Writing etc will be asked of total 100 Marks. Time Provided : 60 Minutes.

The final merit will be prepared on overall performance in Tier-I, Tier-II and Tier-III. However, the candidate will need to qualify all the tiers i.e. Tier-I, Tier-II and Tier-III separately. There will be no sectional cut-off. Document Verification will also be conducted as per the provisions of the notice of examination. 

IES Mechanical engineering New Revised syllabus


Branch/Discipline: Mechanical Engineering

Contents for syllabi of both the Papers together for Stage-I objective type
Paper–II and separately for Stage-II Conventional type Paper-I and Paper – II


1. Fluid Mechanics:

Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids, Manometry, Fluid Statics,
Buoyancy, Equations of Motion, Bernoulli’s equation and applications,
Viscous flow of incompressible fluids, Laminar and Turbulent flows, Flow
through pipes and head losses in pipes.

2. Thermodynamics and Heat transfer:

Thermodynamic systems and processes; properties of pure substance;
Zeroth, First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics; Entropy,
Irreversibility and availability; analysis of thermodynamic cycles related
to energy conversion: Rankine, Otto, Diesel and Dual Cycles; ideal and
real gases; compressibility factor; Gas mixtures.
Modes of heat transfer, Steady and unsteady heat conduction, Thermal
resistance, Fins, Free and forced convection, Correlations for convective
heat transfer, Radiative heat transfer – Radiation heat transfer coefficient;
boiling and condensation, Heat exchanger performance

3. IC Engines, Refrigeration and Air conditioning:

SI and CI Engines, Engine Systems and Components, Performance
characteristics and testing of IC Engines; Fuels; Emissions and
Emission Control. Vapour compression refrigeration, Refrigerants and
Working cycles, Compressors, Condensers, Evaporators and Expansion
devices, Other types of refrigeration systems like Vapour Absorption,
Vapour jet, thermo electric and Vortex tube refrigeration. Psychometric
properties and processes, Comfort chart, Comfort and industrial air
conditioning, Load calculations and Heat pumps.

4. Turbo Machinery:

Reciprocating and Rotary pumps, Pelton wheel, Kaplan and Francis
Turbines, velocity diagrams, Impulse and Reaction principles, Steam
and Gas Turbines, Theory of Jet Propulsion – Pulse jet and Ram Jet
Engines, Reciprocating and Rotary Compressors – Theory and

5. Power Plant Engineering:

Rankine and Brayton cycles with regeneration and reheat, Fuels and
their properties, Flue gas analysis, Boilers, steam turbines and other
power plant components like condensers, air ejectors, electrostatic
precipitators and cooling towers – their theory and design, types and

6. Renewable Sources of Energy:

Solar Radiation, Solar Thermal Energy collection - Flat Plate and
focusing collectors their materials and performance. Solar Thermal
Energy Storage, Applications – heating, cooling and Power Generation;
Solar Photovoltaic Conversion; Harnessing of Wind Energy, Bio-mass
and Tidal Energy – Methods and Applications, Working principles of Fuel


7. Engineering Mechanics:

Analysis of System of Forces, Friction, Centroid and Centre of Gravity,
Dynamics; Stresses and Strains-Compound Stresses and Strains,
Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagrams, Theory of Bending
Stresses-Slope and deflection-Torsion, Thin and thick Cylinders,

8. Engineering Materials:

Basic Crystallography, Alloys and Phase diagrams, Heat Treatment,
Ferrous and Non Ferrous Metals, Non metallic materials, Basics of
Nano-materials, Mechanical Properties and Testing, Corrosion
prevention and control

9. Mechanisms and Machines:

Types of Kinematics Pair, Mobility, Inversions, Kinematic Analysis,
Velocity and Acceleration Analysis of Planar Mechanisms, CAMs with
uniform acceleration and retardation, cycloidal motion, oscillating
followers; Vibrations –Free and forced vibration of undamped and
damped SDOF systems, Transmissibility Ratio, Vibration Isolation,
Critical Speed of Shafts. Gears – Geometry of tooth profiles, Law of
gearing, Involute profile, Interference, Helical, Spiral and Worm Gears,
Gear Trains- Simple, compound and Epicyclic; Dynamic Analysis –
Slider – crank mechanisms, turning moment computations, balancing of
Revolving & Reciprocating masses, Gyroscopes –Effect of Gyroscopic
couple on automobiles, ships and aircrafts, Governors.

10. Design of Machine Elements:

Design for static and dynamic loading; failure theories; fatigue strength
and the S-N diagram; principles of the design of machine elements such
as riveted, welded and bolted joints. Shafts, Spur gears, rolling and
sliding contact bearings, Brakes and clutches, flywheels.

11. Manufacturing ,Industrial and Maintenance Engineering:

Metal casting-Metal forming, Metal Joining, Machining and machine tool
operations, Limits, fits and tolerances, Metrology and inspection,
computer Integrated manufacturing, FMS, Production planning and
Control, Inventory control and operations research - CPM-PERT. Failure
concepts and characteristics-Reliability, Failure analysis, Machine
Vibration, Data acquisition, Fault Detection, Vibration Monitoring, Field
Balancing of Rotors, Noise Monitoring, Wear and Debris Analysis,
Signature Analysis, NDT Techniques in Condition Monitoring.

12. Mechatronics and Robotics:

Microprocessors and Microcontrollers: Architecture, programming, I/O,
Computer interfacing, Programmable logic controller. Sensors and
actuators, Piezoelectric accelerometer, Hall effect sensor, Optical
Encoder, Resolver, Inductosyn, Pneumatic and Hydraulic actuators,
stepper motor, Control Systems- Mathematical modeling of Physical
systems, control signals, controllability and observability. Robotics,
Robot Classification, Robot Specification, notation; Direct and Inverse
Kinematics; Homogeneous Coordinates and Arm Equation of four Axis

Also read : IES civil engineering New Revised syllabus 
To Download PDF version of above syllabus click here

IES civil engineering New Revised syllabus


Branch/Discipline: Civil Engineering

Contents for syllabi of both the Papers together for Stage-I objective type Paper–II and separately for Stage-II Conventional type Paper-I and Paper – II


1. Building Materials:

Stone, Lime, Glass, Plastics, Steel, FRP, Ceramics, Aluminum, Fly Ash,
Basic Admixtures, Timber, Bricks and Aggregates: Classification,
properties and selection criteria;
Cement: Types, Composition, Properties, Uses, Specifications and
various Tests; Lime & Cement Mortars and Concrete: Properties and
various Tests; Design of Concrete Mixes: Proportioning of aggregates
and methods of mix design.

2. Solid Mechanics:

Elastic constants, Stress, plane stress, Strains, plane strain, Mohr’s
circle of stress and strain, Elastic theories of failure, Principal Stresses,
Bending, Shear and Torsion.

3. Structural Analysis:

Basics of strength of materials, Types of stresses and strains, Bending
moments and shear force, concept of bending and shear stresses;
Analysis of determinate and indeterminate structures; Trusses, beams,
plane frames; Rolling loads, Influence Lines, Unit load method & other
methods; Free and Forced vibrations of single degree and multi degree
freedom system; Suspended Cables; Concepts and use of Computer
Aided Design.

4. Design of Steel Structures:

Principles of Working Stress methods, Design of tension and
compression members, Design of beams and beam column
connections, built-up sections, Girders, Industrial roofs, Principles of
Ultimate load design.

5. Design of Concrete and Masonry structures:

Limit state design for bending, shear, axial compression and combined
forces; Design of beams, Slabs, Lintels, Foundations, Retaining walls,
Tanks, Staircases; Principles of pre-stressed concrete design including
materials and methods; Earthquake resistant design of structures;
Design of Masonry Structure.

6. Construction Practice, Planning and Management:

Construction - Planning, Equipment, Site investigation and Management
including Estimation with latest project management tools and network
analysis for different Types of works; Analysis of Rates of various types
of works; Tendering Process and Contract Management, Quality
Control, Productivity, Operation Cost; Land acquisition; Labour safety

and welfare.


1. Flow of Fluids, Hydraulic Machines and Hydro Power:

(a) Fluid Mechanics, Open Channel Flow, Pipe Flow:
Fluid properties; Dimensional Analysis and Modeling; Fluid dynamics
including flow kinematics and measurements; Flow net; Viscosity,
Boundary layer and control, Drag, Lift, Principles in open channel flow,
Flow controls. Hydraulic jump; Surges; Pipe networks.

(b) Hydraulic Machines and Hydro power -
Various pumps, Air vessels, Hydraulic turbines – types, classifications &
performance parameters; Power house – classification and layout,
storage, pondage, control of supply.

2. Hydrology and Water Resources Engineering:

Hydrological cycle, Ground water hydrology, Well hydrology and related
data analysis; Streams and their gauging; River morphology; Flood,
drought and their management; Capacity of Reservoirs.
Water Resources Engineering : Multipurpose uses of Water, River
basins and their potential; Irrigation systems, water demand
assessment; Resources - storages and their yields; Water logging, canal
and drainage design, Gravity dams, falls, weirs, Energy dissipaters,
barrage Distribution works, Cross drainage works and head-works and
their design; Concepts in canal design, construction & maintenance;
River training, measurement and analysis of rainfall.

3. Environmental Engineering:

(a) Water Supply Engineering:

Sources, Estimation, quality standards and testing of water and their
treatment; Rural, Institutional and industrial water supply; Physical,
chemical and biological characteristics and sources of water,
Pollutants in water and its effects, Estimation of water demand;
Drinking water Standards, Water Treatment Plants, Water distribution
(b) Waste Water Engineering:

Planning & design of domestic waste water, sewage collection and
disposal; Plumbing Systems. Components and layout of sewerage
system; Planning & design of Domestic Waste-water disposal system;
Sludge management including treatment, disposal and re-use of
treated effluents; Industrial waste waters and Effluent Treatment
Plants including institutional and industrial sewage management.

(c) Solid Waste Management:

Sources & classification of solid wastes along with planning & design
of its management system; Disposal system, Beneficial aspects of
wastes and Utilization by Civil Engineers.

(d) Air, Noise pollution and Ecology:

Concepts & general methodology.

4. Geo-technical Engineering and Foundation Engineering :

(a) Geo-technical Engineering: Soil exploration - planning & methods,
Properties of soil, classification, various tests and inter-relationships;
Permeability & Seepage, Compressibility, consolidation and Shearing
resistance, Earth pressure theories and stress distribution in soil;
Properties and uses of geo-synthetics.

(b)Foundation Engineering: Types of foundations & selection criteria,
bearing capacity, settlement analysis, design and testing of shallow &
deep foundations; Slope stability analysis, Earthen embankments, Dams
and Earth retaining structures: types, analysis and design, Principles of
ground modifications.

5. Surveying and Geology:

(a) Surveying: Classification of surveys, various methodologies,
instruments & analysis of measurement of distances, elevation and
directions; Field astronomy, Global Positioning System; Map
preparation; Photogrammetry; Remote sensing concepts; Survey
Layout for culverts, canals, bridges, road/railway alignment and
buildings, Setting out of Curves.

(b) Geology: Basic knowledge of Engineering geology & its application
in projects.

6. Transportation Engineering
Highways - Planning & construction methodology, Alignment and
geometric design; Traffic Surveys and Controls; Principles of Flexible
and Rigid pavements design.
Tunneling - Alignment, methods of construction, disposal of muck,
drainage, lighting and ventilation.
Railways Systems – Terminology, Planning, designs and maintenance
practices; track modernization.
Harbours – Terminology, layouts and planning.
Airports – Layout, planning & design.

Also Read : IES Mechanical engineering New Revised syllabus 
To Download PDF version of above syllabus click here

CBSE Class 12th results date declared check here

Expected date of CBSE Class 12th result ( Science,Commerce & Arts) is 23 May 2016. You can check your result through CBSE Official Website www.cbse.nic.in on may 23.

How to Check the Result of CBSE Class 12th 2016 : 

This Result is For Exams held between March 1 and April 22, For last year this result was declared on may 25. This year May 23 is the expected date.
For More info you can contact CBSE helpline number  : 1800-11-8002

Approx 15 Lakh candidates appeared in this paper.

To Check you result on May 23 :

  1. Go to  www.cbse.nic.in
  2. Click on CBSE Class 12th Result
  3. In the new window enter your roll number and name
  4. Result will be displayed


CBSE is the apex board of education in India which is not only having a pan Indian jurisdiction but also has global presence with nearly 141 affiliated schools across 21 countries. CBSE grants affiliation to Schools up to higher secondary level and develops common curriculum keeping nationwide requirements in focus. The CBSE affiliation is considered as a prestigious recognition as it requires the schools to follow rigid quality standards. 

Past year CBSE Result declaration pattern : 

Let's have a look at when CBSE Class 12th result was declared in past 5 years 

For 2012 : Class 12th CBSE Result was declared on 28th May 2012
For 2013 : Class 12th CBSE Result was declared on 27th May 2013
For 2014 : Class 12th CBSE Result was declared on 27th May 2014
For 2015 : Class 12th CBSE Result was declared on 25th May 2015
For 2016 : Class 12th CBSE Result was declared on 23th May 2016 (Expected)

So we hope our this post CBSE Class 12th results date would have helped you.